Genetics pdf Notes 2023 | BS Botany 6th Semester

Genetics pdf Notes 2023 | BS Botany 6th Semester.Genetics pdf Notes 2023 | BS Botany 6th Semester.Genetics pdf Notes 2023 | BS Botany 6th Semester.

Mendelian Inheritance Notes
Extension of Mendelian analysis Download – View
Variation on dominanceDownload – View
Multiple alleles and Lethal Alleles Download – View
What are reduced penetrance and variable expressivity?Download – View
Several Genes affecting the same characterDownload – View

Genetic Definition

Genetics is the scientific study of genes and heredity—of how certain qualities or traits are passed from parents to offspring as a result of changes in DNA sequence. A gene is a segment of DNA that contains instructions for building one or more molecules that help the body work.

An illustration of DNA, containing genes, being folded into a chromosome. It also shows a cell with chromosomes inside the nucleus.
DNA makes up genes and is spooled within chromosomes inside the nucleus of a cell. Credit: Educatehell.

What are genes?

A gene is a short section of DNA. Your genes contain instructions that tell your cells to make molecules called proteins. Proteins perform various functions in your body to keep you healthy. Each gene carries instructions that determine your features, such as eye colour, hair colour and height.

What is a gene pool simple definition?

A gene pool is the total genetic diversity found within a population or a species. A large gene pool has extensive genetic diversity and is better able to withstand the challenges posed by environmental stresses.

What is gene pool with example?

2. What is an Example of Gene Pool? A gene pool is a collection of different genes, both expressed and not expressed, present in a population of a particular species. This can be any population in consideration for example frogs in a pond, trees in a forest, etc.

What is a simple definition of chromosomes?

A structure found inside the nucleus of a cell. A chromosome is made up of proteins and DNA organized into genes. Each cell normally contains 23 pairs of chromosomes.

What is chromosome and its function?

Chromosomes are thread-like structures in which DNA is tightly packaged within the nucleus. DNA is coiled around proteins called histones, which provide the structural support. Chromosomes help ensure that DNA is replicated and distributed appropriately during cell division.

Image result for chromosome definition

Where are chromosomes located?

nucleusChromosomes are structures found in the center (nucleus) of cells that carry long pieces of DNA. DNA is the material that holds genes. It is the building block of the human body.

Are DNA and chromosomes the same?

In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

Difference Between Genotype and Phenotype ?

Variation and Inheritance National 5. Learning Outcomes Give examples of  variation within species Describe how sexual reproduction maintains  variation. - ppt download
Difference Between Genotype and phenotype | Read Biology

Difference Between Genotype and Phenotype ? oR Genotype VS Phenotype

1 – Genotype refers to the genetic code of the individual.This is all the information that is found inside the individuals cell.Phenotype is the expression of the genotype that is visible to other people and can be observed.
2 – The genotype refers to the genetic material passed between generationsphenotype is observable characteristics or traits of an organism.
3 – whilst genotype is inherited from an organism’s parents,the phenotype is not
4 – Genotype does not equal phenotype.Whilst a phenotype is influenced the genotype

What are 5 examples of genotype?

Examples of Genotype:

  • Height. For an individual’s gene makeup there is tall variety (T) and there is short variety (s). T and s are called the alleles.
  • Freckles or no freckles. Again the information that is passed from parent to child is carried in the cell of the genotype.
  • Lactose intolerance.
4.3 Theoretical genetics & 10.2 HL Genetics. 4.3 Theoretical genetics:  Objectives 1- Define genotype, phenotype, dominant allele, recessive  allele, codominant. - ppt download

What is the difference between genes and DNA?

 Genes are the DNA stretches which encode for specific proteins. Regulates the traits of an organism.DNA is the genetic material, which is involved in carrying the hereditary information, replication process, mutations, and also in the equal distribution of DNA during the cell division. 
Make up DNA OR RNANot Only Share the Genetic Material by organisms
Determine the trait of OrganismsDetermine Many Finction such as regulation
Long Chain of PolynucleotideSmall Stretches of DNA
Difference Between DNA and Genes | Definition, Structure, Features,  Comparison

What is locus in botany?

A locus is a spot or “address” on a chromosome at which a gene for a particular trait is located in all members of a species.

OR A locus is the specific physical location of a gene or other DNA sequence on a chromosome, like a genetic street address. The plural of locus is “loci”.

What is the difference between chromosome and DNA?

chromosome DNA 
A chromosome is a long chain of DNA moleculesDNA is a fundamental molecule that carries the genetic instruction of all living organisms.
It is contains part of all of the genetic material of an organismDNA is packed into chromosomes with the help of special proteins called histones.
A chromosome is the most organized structure of DNA.  DNA is made up of nucleotide monomers of four bases A, T, C, and G.
Main Difference - DNA vs Chromosome

Difference Between DNA and Chromosome


DNA: DNA is the chemical form which stores genetic information.

Chromosome: A chromosome is the highest organized structure of DNA double helix with proteins.


DNA: DNA is made up of nucleotide monomers of four bases A, T, C, and G.

Chromosome: A chromosome is made up of condensed DNA double-helix with histone protein.


DNA: DNA carries the genetic information within a cell.

Chromosome: Organization of DNA along with histone proteins into chromosomes let the transcription to be controlled. 


DNA is the chemical form of storing genetic information for the development, functioning, and reproduction. Since DNA is a long strand it should be well packaged within the cell. Thus, DNA is condensed with histones to form chromosomes. Therefore, the key difference between DNA and chromosome is that a chromosome is the packaging structure of DNA.

What is difference between allele and gene?

allele is a variant form of a gene. Each gene resides at a specific locus (location on a chromosome) in two copies, one copy of the gene inherited from each parent.
Allele are also genetic sequences, and they too code for the transmission of traits.A gene  is a unit of hereditary information.

What is the difference between a chromatin and a chromosome? OR

Chromatin vs Chromosomes

Chromosomes are thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cellsThe chromatin further condenses to form chromosomes.
 chromosomes are higher order of DNA organization. chromatin is lower order of DNA organization
 Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.The DNA is packaged by special proteins called histones to form chromatin. 
They are condensed chromatin fibersComposed of nucleosomes
Visualised under light microscopeVisualized under electron microscope
Thick, compact, ribbon-like structureThin, long, uncoiled structure
No metabolic activity shownAllows DNA replication
NoSubjectCreditCourse CodeView
1 –Plant Ecology2+1=3BOt – 302Download – View

2 –Genetics2+1=3BOt – 304Download – View

3 –Plant Biochemistry2+1=3BOt – 306Download – View

4 –Plant Physiology2+1=3BOt – 306Download – View

5 –Plant Anatomy2+1=3BOt – 306Download – View