BS Botany 6th Semester Plant Anatomy Past Paper 2022

BS Botany 6th Semester Plant Anatomy Past Paper 2022.BS Botany 6th Semester Plant Anatomy Past Paper 2022.BS Botany 6th Semester Plant Anatomy Past Paper 2024.

Difference Between Meristematic and Permanent Tissue

Following are some of the important differences between Meristematic and Permanent Tissue.

Meristematic TissuesPermanent Tissue
Capacity to divide
Can divideCannot divide
Cell Composition
Undifferentiated cellsDifferentiated cells
Simple/Complex tissues
Always simple tissues, composing of one type of cell onlyCan be simple or complex tissue. If complex, contains more than one type of cells
Nature of cells
Always Living cellsCan be non-living(Sclerenchyma) or living(Parenchyma)
Cytoplasm in cells
Contains dense cytoplasmMay or may not contain cytoplasm
Prominent nucleus
AlwaysProminent in some cells (Parenchyma) while absent in others(Sclerenchyma)
Pace of cell division
RapidCompletely differentiated, do not divide
Size and shape of cells
Size – smallShape – isodiametricLumen – largeSize – largeShape – variesLumen – very narrow or wide
Cell arrangement
Compactly arranged.No intercellular spacesLoose in some(Parenchyma)Compact in some(Sclerenchyma)
Usually absentVacuoles present in living cells. But dead cells lack protoplasm
Metabolic rate
Very highVery less or no metabolism at all

What is Phellogen and Periderm ?

The tissues produced by the cork cambium (also called the phellogen) are the phellum (also called the bark) to the outside The phelloderm to the inside are collectively called the bark (also called the periderm).
Phellogen is a meristematic tissuephelloderm is a permanent tissue that constitutes the secondary cortex.

Basic Concepts of Meristematic Tissue and Permanent Tissue

Let us discuss some basic concepts of meristematic tissue and permanent tissue, so we can easily differentiate between meristematic tissue and permanent tissue. When a group of cells performs the same function, it is known as tissue. Usually, these tissues are found in plants. Plant tissue is classified into two types namely meristematic and permanent tissue depending on the cell division capacity. To differentiate between meristematic and permanent tissue in plants you should be thorough with the functions and structures of these tissues. So, let us briefly discuss each of them below.

Meristematic Tissue

Meristematic tissue is also called meristems. They have the ability to enlarge, differentiate and stretch into other types of cells when they mature. The cells of the meristematic tissue are young and immature but they can divide continuously.

Types of Meristematic Tissue

There are Different Types of Meristematic Tissues:

On the basis of-

  1. Origin
  2. Position and
  3. Function

There are Three Types of Meristematic Tissue

  1. On the Basis of Origin:
  • Primordial Meristem: it has an embryonic origin which is present in the growing tip of a shoot and is also the earliest Meristematic Tissue.
  • Primary meristem: There are three kinds of primary meristems. Protoderm(develops into epidermis), Procambium( develops into primary xylem and phloem), Ground meristem (develops into the cortex and the pith).
  • Secondary Meristem: It is also called a lateral meristem because it is around the established cell that helps to grow laterally. There are two types of lateral meristems, vascular cambium (produces secondary xylem and secondary phloem), and cork cambium (produces the periderm which replaces the epidermis).
  1. On the Basis of Position
  • Apical Meristem: It is located on the tip of the root and stem which helps in the growth of plants. It is further divided into shoot apical meristem and root apical meristem.
  • Intercalary Meristem: Intercalary Meristem is placed at the internode and inside the Intercalary position of the leaves.
  • Lateral Meristem: Lateral Meristem is placed at the lateral side of the root. It helps in the thickening of the plants. 
  1. On the Basis of Function
  • Protoderm: Protoderm is the outer Meristematic Tissue that protects from injuries.
  • Procambium: Procambium is the inner Meristematic Tissue that helps in the transportation of nutrients and water. 
  • Ground Meristem: Ground Meristem helps in the development of ground tissue, endodermis, pericycle and cortex.

Permanent Tissue

It contains non-dividing cells that help to perform certain functions. Some of the main functions include the conduction of water, minerals, and nutrition. It also provides support, protection, and helps in photosynthesis.

Types of Permanent Tissue

There are two types of permanent tissues.

Simple Permanent Tissue: They are call simple permanent tissue as they are compose of only one type of cell. All the cells which make simple permanent tissue are up of the same tissue and have a similar structure. Further, it is divide into three types, namely, parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma.

  1. Parenchyma: Parenchyma is a living ground tissue with thin walls that helps the plant to grow and divide to assist the functioning of photosynthesis, transport and storage. 
  2. Collenchyma: Collenchyma is also a living tissue that provides flexibility and support to veins and stems of plants through its elongated cell composition and thick and irregular walls. 
  3. Sclerenchyma: Sclerenchyma is mostly compose of dead cells that are found in places like bark, mature stems and other hard parts to provide strength and structure to the plant.

Complex Permanent Tissue: It is compose of more than one type of cell and helps to perform some special functions. Some of the examples are xylem and phloem.

  1. Xylem: Xylem is a vascular tissue that transports minerals and distributes water upwards from the roots to the rest parts of the plant.
  2. Phloem: Phloem is a plant tissue compose of specialised cells, fibers and parenchyma cells of phloem that translocates the food prepare by leaves to the rest parts of the plant.

Special Tissues 

Special Tissues are specially organise tissues that help in secretion of plant cells. There are mainly two types of special Tissues:

  1. Laticiferous Tissue: This tissue is compose of laticifer that produces rubber and latex. These are found in the leaves and stems of the flowering plants.
  2. Glandular Tissue: Glandular means possession of glands. Glandular tissue helps in the functioning of secretion of water drops and also helps in the secretion of useful products like gums, resins and oils. 

Now, let us learn how to differentiate between meristematic and permanent tissue.